Difference Between Akinesia and Dyskinesia

Both akinesia and dyskinesia can be affliction symptoms (i.due east., Parkinson’s disease) and involve move difficulties. Regarding their treatments, these conditions may benefit from medication adjustments, deep brain stimulation, and physical therapy. Specifically, akinesia is the inability to voluntarily motility muscles while dyskinesia is characterized past involuntary, writhing, and erratic movements. The following discussions further delve into their differences.


What is Akinesia?

Akinesia or “absent-minded movement” (Ramakrishnan & De Jesus, 2021) is the inability to voluntarily move muscles. It came from the Greek prefix
a-
which means “without” and the Greek give-and-take
kinesis
which means “motility”. A person who has this symptom may feel as if his body is “frozen” in time; hence, it is sometimes referred to as “freezing” (Nall, 2017). The afflicted muscles may be in the face, legs, easily, or other trunk parts.

This condition can occur at any age. Physicians typically associate it with the later stages of Parkinson’s disease; 47% of more than than six,600 individuals with Parkinson’due south disease reported freezing or akinesia as a symptom (Nall, 2017). Moreover, akinesia can be experienced by fetuses in the womb; fetal akinesia deformation sequence (FADS) is characterized past abnormal facial features, articulation contractures, intrauterine growth restriction, and underdeveloped lungs (Jewell, 2018).

The symptoms of akinesia include difficulty in walking (i.e., “gait freezing”), musculus rigidity or feeling stiff in one or more than musculus groups (usually beginning in the legs and neck; the facial muscles can also become rigid like a mask), and suddenly beingness unable for the feet to movement appropriately when turning (Nall, 2017; Jewell, 2018).

The causes of akinesia include Parkinson’s disease, multiple-organisation atrophy, normal-pressure hydrocephalus, progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) (characterized by gradual encephalon damage and inability to maintain balance when walking), hormone levels (i.e., low levels of thyroid hormone), genetic mutations (i.e., increased risk for fetal akinesia), and medication-induced Parkinson’southward-like symptoms (Ramakrishnan & De Jesus, 2021; Nall, 2017).

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Regarding treatments, they include stopping the medication (i.e., medication-induced Parkinson’south-like symptoms), and taking medications that can increase dopamine levels (Nall, 2017). Other remedies involve deep brain stimulation, physical therapy, eating fiber-rich foods, drinking plenty of water, meditation, and acupuncture (Jewell, 2018).


What is Dyskinesia?

Dyskinesia is characterized past involuntary, writhing, and erratic movements. It came from the Greek prefix
dys-
which means “aberrant” and
kinesis
which ways “motion”. The movements may be fluid, slow, rapid jerking, or extended spasms (Parkinson’s Foundation, 2021).

The symptoms normally begin to show in the dominant hand or pes as small-scale shakes, tremors, or tics. They may vary according to the type. The post-obit are some of the common types of dyskinesia ((Huizen, 2017):

  • Parkinson’due south dyskinesia (also known as Levodopa-induced dyskinesia)

Effectually 50% of individuals with Parkinson’s illness develop dyskinesia after being treated with levodopa within four to five years. The symptoms include wriggling, caput bobbing, rocking, swaying, and fidgeting.

  • Tremors

The rhythmic movements may exist static or resting, kinetic or activity and intention (during the movement of an upper body office), and postural (occur while a limb is not being moved and go along when moved).

  • Dystonia

The sustained musculus contractions unremarkably involve abnormal and repetitive twisting movements.

  • Chorea

The continuous hasty movements are each held for a few seconds.

  • Delayed Dyskinesia or Tardive Dyskinesia

Antipsychotic medications may cause potent and jerky movements.

  • Myoclonus Types

The severe spasms and jerks are ordinarily repetitive and severe enough to be disabling.

  • Spasmodic Torticollis

It is characterized by the abnormal twisting of neck and head.

  • Ballism
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It is characterized by fierce flinging of the limbs.

  • Athetosis

This is characterized by dull turning or bending writhing movements.

  • Stereotypies and Tics

These are repetitive useless twitches; some professionals practise non consider stereotypies and tics as a type of dyskinesia.

The treatments include adjusting medications, getting enough practise, employing stress-management techniques, monotherapy, and deep brain stimulation (Wells, 2020).

Difference between Akinesia and Dyskinesia

Definition

Akinesia or “absent movement” (Ramakrishnan & De Jesus, 2021) is the disability to voluntarily motion muscles. A person who has this symptom may feel as if his torso is “frozen” in time; hence, it is sometimes referred to as “freezing” (Nall, 2017). On the contrary, dyskinesia is characterized past involuntary, writhing, and erratic movements. The movements may be fluid, slow, rapid jerking, or extended spasms (Parkinson’south Foundation, 2021).

Etymology

Akinesia came from the Greek prefix
a-
which means “without” and the Greek discussion
kinesis
which ways “motion”. In comparison, dyskinesia came from the Greek prefix
dys-
which means “abnormal” and
kinesis
which ways “motility”.

Types

Unlike akinesia, dyskinesia has specified types such every bit Parkinson’s dyskinesia, tremors, dystonia, chorea, tardive dyskinesia, myoclonus types, spasmodic torticollis, ballism, and athetosis.

Akinesia vs Dyskinesia


Oftentimes Asked Questions (FAQs)

What is akinesia and bradykinesia?

Akinesia is “absent movement” while bradykinesia is “tedious movement”.

What is the divergence between akathisia and akinesia?

Akathisia is the difficulty of staying nonetheless while akinesia is the inability to voluntarily move muscles.

What is the divergence between tremor and dyskinesia?

One type of dyskinesia is tremors.

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What is choreoathetosis?

Choreoathetosis is characterized by involuntary twitching or writhing. It is a combination of chorea which causes rapid unpredictable muscle contractions and athetosis which causes slow writhing movements (Anthony, 2018).

What is TD?

TD or tardive dyskinesia is characterized by strong and jerky movements caused by antipsychotic medications.

Summary

  • Both akinesia and dyskinesia can be disease symptoms, involve movement difficulties, and may benefit from medication adjustments, deep brain stimulation, and physical therapy.
  • Akinesia is the inability to voluntarily move muscles while dyskinesia is characterized by involuntary, writhing, and erratic movements.
  • Unlike akinesia, dyskinesia has specified types such equally Parkinson’s dyskinesia, tremors, dystonia, chorea, tardive dyskinesia.
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