Do computers that run nuclear reactors usually run on GNU/Linux to make sure they’re not getting hacked

Info
Whonix ™ is available for many operating systems. Run across Download. Which host operating system is the most suitable or about secure? This is being addressed on this wiki page.

Recommended Host Operating Systems

[edit]

The post-obit Linux based
[1]
operating systems are specifically recommended.

Tabular array:
Recommended Host Operating Systems

These are recommended since these are used by the developers of Whonix ™. The developer’s familiarity with these operating systems makes it easier to provide maintenance and support.

Users that have never used whatsoever Linux based operating organization ever earlier, that are currently using Windows or macOS as their computer operating system, might find it difficult at first to drift to a Linux based operating organisation. (Linux User Experience versus Commercial Operating Systems



)

That is why Whonix ™ and Kicksecure ™ are available on other operating systems such equally Windows and macOS through use of virtualization. A familiar environment without the necessity of complex host operating organization changes gives users a chance to experiment with their first Linux based operating system. This opportunity to larn more might go i day a user who mainly uses Linux as their host operating system.

As long as no downloadable Kicksecure ™ ISO is bachelor, Linux beginners might notice Debian easier to utilize than Kicksecure ™.

Existing Debian, Ubuntu or other Debian derivatives users with essential knowledge well-nigh its usage however might notice Kicksecure ™ easy to use.

Other Operating Systems

[edit]

Info
Linux, Xen or BSD are the only serious options for a host operating system that respects privacy. Interested readers should review the rest of this folio if they are interested to notice out why.

Linux Hosts

[edit]

A Gratis Software


Bone that respects user freedom is the but practical choice when it comes to privacy and security.

Use Linux on the host and adopt in-repository software that is automatically gpg-signed and installed from the distributor’s repositories past the package manager. This is far safer than downloading programs from the Internet like Windows adherents are required to do.

Info
If it is infeasible to install Qubes equally a high-security solution, and so Debian Linux



version
11
(codename:
bullseye) is recommended since it provides a reasonable balance of usability, security and user freedom.

Interested readers tin find a complete list of reasons to utilize Debian here



. For download, verification and installation instructions, run across Debian Tips



.

In the past, virtually any Linux distribution could exist recommended in order to protect privacy, withal Ubuntu’due south history of information-mining


makes information technology an unsuitable choice.
[2]
Ubuntu’s Feb 2016 Privacy Policy allowed search terms entered into the nuance to exist sent to Ubuntu and selected tertiary parties to “complement” search results, along with the IP accost. Fortunately this text has at present been removed in the latest iteration of the document

.

For boosted reasons to avoid Ubuntu or Ubuntu-derived distributions, expand this section.

Ubuntu’s paltry contributions to the upstream Libre projects they heavily rely upon is a policy decision and non a coincidence. Canonical founder Mark Shuttleworth has stated: “It is absolutely true nosotros take no involvement in the core fundamentals of the Linux kernel, none whatever.”
[iii]

Approved only bothers to majorly contribute in any mode when forking significant projects; for example, Wayland into Mir, GNOME into Unity
[four], and .deb packages incompatible with Debian because of zstd compression.
[5]
This appears to be a consequent attempt to fragment the software stack to lock in users and put pressure on competing distributions and vendors.
[six]
[7]

The Ubuntu Contributor License Agreement gives them consummate power over patents that cover contributed lawmaking. Essentially they are granted the right to re-license this code under whatever license of their choice, including a proprietary one.

Ubuntu likewise has a history of treating staff in a hostile fashion. For example, the Kubuntu spin projection lead was unilaterally removed without alarm and contrary to wishes of his team members.
[8]
Canonical likewise pilfered donation funds originally meant for desktop spin projects (Kubuntu, Lubuntu and others). In Kubuntu’s instance, afterwards funding was abruptly dropped, Blue Systems had to pace in to salvage the popular projection.
[nine]
[ten]

Canonical has too been applying an absurd intellectual holding (IP) policy over packages in its repositories for years. This resulted in claims that Canonical owns the copyright over any binaries compiled past their servers. After the FSF stepped in and arranged a resolution over a catamenia of ii years, the policy was amended to land that Canonical’s IP policy cannot override packages with GPL licenses. Still, this at present means that whatsoever package with a permissive license is at present copyrighted by Canonical.
[11]
[12]

Unfortunately, downstream forks based on Ubuntu cannot be relied upon either. For example, the pop Linux Mint distribution was threatened with beingness cutting off from access to Ubuntu infrastructure unless they caved in to Canonical’s binary licensing terms.
[thirteen]
Since then, Linux Mint has adult a version based on Debian instead. Canonical’s vague trademark and IP policy has become toxic for downstream distributions. Many accept made the smart selection to re-base on Debian instead of Ubuntu over the years including Kali, Whonix ™
[fourteen]
and others.
[15]

A terminal major concern is Canonical’due south friendly relationship with Microsoft. This should brand all Linux users uncomfortable, given Microsoft’s strategy of “Embrace, Extend, Extinguish” with respect to Free Software.
[xvi]

At that place are of grade other options. Run into “Why don’t yous utilize <your favorite near secure operating system> for Whonix ™?” for analysis of alternatives.

Introduction

[edit]

A lot contention is derived from the different word definitions of the word “security” by advocates of proprietary software versus Freedom Software. An try to explain the different positions can exist plant in chapter Freedom vs Tyrant Security



.

Windows Hosts

[edit]

Windows Backdoors

[edit]

Table:
Windows Backdoors

Category Description
User Content Upload to Microsoft Windows sometimes takes user content, such as documents and uploads information technology to Microsoft servers.

Quote Microsoft: Configure telemetry and other settings in your organization (web archived website) (Underline
added.)

Full level

The Total level gathers info necessary to identify and to help fix problems, following the blessing process described beneath. This level besides includes info from the Basic, Enhanced, and Security levels.

Additionally, at this level, devices opted in to the Windows Insider Program will send events that can show Microsoft how pre-release binaries and features are performing. All devices in the Windows Insider Program are automatically fix to this level.

If a device experiences problems that are hard to place or repeat using Microsoft’south internal testing, additional info becomes necessary. This info can include whatsoever user content that might have triggered the problem and is gathered from a pocket-sized sample of devices that have both opted into the Full telemetry level and have exhibited the trouble.

Notwithstanding, earlier more info is gathered, Microsoft’south privacy governance team, including privacy and other subject matter experts, must approve the diagnostics request made by a Microsoft engineer. If the asking is approved, Microsoft engineers can use the following capabilities to get the information:

  • Ability to run a limited, pre-approved list of Microsoft certified diagnostic tools, such every bit msinfo32.exe, powercfg.exe, and dxdiag.exe.
  • Ability to get registry keys.
  • Ability to gather user content, such as documents,
    if they might have been the trigger for the issue.

Media as well reported. The Register: Windows 10 telemetry secrets: Where, when, and why Microsoft collects your data


(Underline
added.):

At the Total setting, you lot grant Microsoft permission to collect actress data […]

The formal documentation makes it articulate that this sort of investigation
tin snag personal documents:

[…]

Ability to get together user content, such equally documents,
[…]

Quote ZDNet: Windows 10 telemetry secrets: Where, when, and why Microsoft collects your information


(Underline
added.):

At the Total setting, you grant Microsoft permission to collect extra data when your device “experiences problems that are hard to place or repeat using Microsoft’southward internal testing.

The formal documentation makes it clear that this sort of investigation
can snag personal documents:

[…]

Ability to assemble user content, such equally documents,
if they might take been the trigger for the issue.

The default level is Full for Windows ten Home and Pro
and Enhanced for Enterprise edition. (On a device that is running an Insider preview edition, this value is set to Full and can but exist changed by installing a released version.) If you are concerned enough virtually privacy to accept read this far, you probably want to set the telemetry level to Basic.

Quote Bone researchgate: Telephone call Home: Background Telemetry Reporting in Windows x


(Underline
added.):

The default level
for Windows 10 Dwelling and Pro is “Full” and “Enhanced” for Enterprise editions.

Quote Microsoft (spider web archived, year 2018


(Underline
added.):

Full level The Full level gathers data necessary to identify and to help gear up bug, following the approval process described below. This level also includes data from the Bones, Enhanced, and Security levels.
This is the default level for Windows 10 Pro.

Alternative write-upwards, Scaring: Windows x lets Microsoft access your own local files

.

In theory it might be possible to disable this behavior just then there have also been cases where these settings accept non been honored every bit documented in affiliate Inescapable Telemetry.

There is a
privacy by policy
safeguard implemented at the Microsoft organisational level. Quote “Yet, before more than info is gathered, Microsoft’south privacy governance team, including privacy and other subject matter experts, must approve the diagnostics request made by a Microsoft engineer.” Yet, privacy by policy is not privacy past design (privacy enforced through engineering science). Generally speaking, in that location is a history of privacy by policy safeguards being circumvented by malicious employees (insider assail), hacking (outsider attacks) and privacy past policy also fails in case of government requests. Microsoft’s privacy governance team would exist circumvented if Microsoft was compelled through a government club.

Quote FBI–Apple tree encryption dispute


(Underline
added.
lawmaking
added.):

In 2015 and 2016, Apple tree Inc. received and objected to or challenged at to the lowest degree 11 orders issued by United States commune courts under the All Writs Act of 1789. Nearly of these seek to compel Apple “to use its
existing capabilities
to excerpt information like contacts, photos and calls

from locked iPhones […]

While there exists (to the knowledge of the author) no law that allows the government to compel companies to add new surveillance capabilities, new backdoors to operating systems, Microsoft has an
existing adequacy
of accessing user content on the Windows operating organisation. It is therefore conceivable that Microsoft is receiving orders of using that
existing capability.

Mayhap even orders which Microsoft would never exist immune to talk about due to a gag club

. Microsoft’south U.S. National Security Orders Report


states Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act (FISA)


orders for the time period of July – Dec 2019, 0 – 499 orders seeking disclosure of content with 14,500 – fourteen,999 Accounts impacted by orders seeking content. Some orders probably related to hosted accounts such the Microsoft live east-mail service or Skype. It is unknown if that might also include user content from Windows. FISA is just i society that includes a secrecy gild (gag society) past the U.S. government. Microsoft must also abide by other types of government orders as well as by orders from governments of unlike countries

.

The relevant argument past Microsoft
Ability to assemble user content, such as documents,
can exist found on this spider web archived website. The relevant argument can no longer exist establish in the electric current version of the document. If just the text or the actual behavior was inverse in unknown by the writer since no changelog, no further information on this could be found and no source code is available to the general public.
[17]

If using this
existing capability
is possible against any users where simply an IP accost or Windows Alive ID is known at any time or if an existing crash report is a prerequisite is also unknown for the same reasons. It would exist far better if there would exist no such
existing capability.

Encryption Microsoft has backdoored its disk encryption.

Quote The Intercept: (…) Microsoft Probably Has Your Encryption Key

:

Just what is less well-known is that, if you are like most users and login to Windows 10 using your Microsoft account, your calculator automatically uploaded a copy of your recovery cardinal — which can exist used to unlock your encrypted disk — to Microsoft’s servers, probably without your noesis and without an choice to opt out.

“When a device goes into recovery fashion, and the user doesn’t have access to the recovery cardinal, the information on the drive will become permanently inaccessible. Based on the possibility of this effect and a broad survey of customer feedback we chose to automatically fill-in the user recovery cardinal,” a Microsoft spokesperson told me. “The recovery key requires physical access to the user device and is not useful without it.”

Merely disabling this requires awareness of the issue, skills of using search engines and finding documentation how to do then, and technical skills to disable this privacy intrusion. This is often not the instance for not-technical users. (The Tyranny of the Default)

Software Choice and Deletion
  • Windows has a feature to
    remotely
    deleting applications installed through Windows Store


    from the figurer. At time of writing there are no known cases of abuse of this feature. It was simply used for malware removal.
  • Windows x upgrades delete applications without permission

    .

Windows Surveillance

[edit]

Table:
Windows Surveillance Threats

Category Clarification
Antagonist Collaboration
  • Microsoft SkyDrive allows adversaries to examine user data

    .
  • Microsoft has enabled spyware in Skype


    and specifically inverse the software


    to enable this part.

    • Microsoft buy of Skype was detrimental to privacy. Quote: The Guardian: Microsoft handed the NSA admission to encrypted messages

      :

      • In July final yr, 9 months afterward Microsoft bought Skype, the NSA boasted that a new adequacy had tripled the amount of Skype video calls being collected through Prism;

      • It might have been better for privacy if Microsoft didn’t purchase Skype.
      • Microsoft could have kept stop-to-stop encryption intact, transformed Skype into an Open Source project and/or fought illegitimate requests in the courts as Apple did. (FBI–Apple tree encryption dispute

        ) Microsoft even so did not decide to take a stand of their users and did none of that.
Anonymity
  • Windows DRM files can potentially identify people browsing with Tor

    .
  • Windows assigns a unique advertising ID for each user so that other companies can track individual browsing habits.
Keylogger

Windows 10 comes with a keylogger.

Quote Microsoft (year 2015 web archived version): Windows 10 speech communication, inking, typing, and privacy FAQ:

What are speech, inking, and typing services? When you collaborate with your Windows device by speaking, writing (handwriting), or typing, Microsoft collects speech, inking, and typing information—including data almost your Calendar and People (also known as contacts)— […]

Quote
[eighteen]
PCWorld: text input and unique typing cadency (design)

:

Microsoft pretty much admits information technology has a keylogger in its Microsoft: Windows 10 spoken language, inking, typing, and privacy FAQ: “When you interact with your Windows device by speaking, writing (handwriting), or typing, Microsoft collects speech, inking, and typing information—including data about your Calendar and People (too known as contacts)…”

Quoting 2015 version of Microsoft: Windows 10 speech, inking, typing, and privacy FAQ

:

Can I articulate the voice communication, inking, and typing data Microsoft has collected nigh me?

Yes, you can clear your speech, inking, and typing data from your device and from the cloud.

  • […]
  • To clear data stored on the cloud, become to Offset, then Settings > Privacy > Speech, inking, & typing, so select the Go to Bing and manage personal info for all your devices link.

Note: any deletion from the quote is just a hope. If information was leaked or shared with other parties previously or requested thought government social club previously, information technology would not be deleted.

Such information is vulnerable to Keystroke Deanonymization.

Voice Recording

Quote 2020 Microsoft: Windows 10 speech, inking, typing, and privacy FAQ


(Underline
added.):

When you use the Microsoft
deject-based spoken language recognition service, Microsoft collects and uses your voice recordings to create a text transcription of the spoken words in the phonation data.

This means Windows is recording the phonation of the user and storing it on servers owned past Microsoft. The same website mentions this can exist disabled.

Y’all can use device-based speech recognition without sending your vocalism data to Microsoft.

But disabling this requires sensation of the issue, skills of using search engines and finding documentation how to do so, and technical skills to disable this privacy intrusion. This is often not the example for non-technical users. (The Tyranny of the Default)

Quote Microsoft Privacy Statement, Final Updated: March 2021


(Underline
added.) (Bold
added.):

Inking and typing Recognition. You also can choose to help Microsoft meliorate inking and typing recognition past sending inking and typing diagnostic data. If yous choose to practise so,
Microsoft will collect samples of the
content y’all type or write

to improve features such equally handwriting recognition, autocompletion, next word prediction, and spelling correction in the many languages used by Windows customers. When Microsoft collects inking and typing diagnostic data, it is divided into pocket-size samples and
processed to remove
unique identifiers, sequencing data, and other data (such as email addresses and numeric values)
which could exist used to reconstruct the original content or associate the input to you. It besides includes associated functioning data, such every bit changes you manually make to text, likewise as words you’ve added to the lexicon. Learn more about improving inking and typing in Windows 10

.

This sounds rather theoretic, “collect samples” – how many samples? “processed to remove” data “which could be used to reconstruct the original content or associate the input to yous” – how well does that processing piece of work?

Such data is vulnerable to Voice Deanonymization.

Spyware

  • information sent to Microsoft includes details of all the software installed in a machine

    . Quote:

According to tecChannel, the information sent to Microsoft includes details of all the software installed in a machine, not merely Microsoft applications.

  • Windows snoops on local searches

    .
  • The smartscreen filter too reports what software is running on the computer

    .
  • Windows 10 SmartScreen Sends URLs and App Names to Microsoft

    .
Telemetry and Personal Information
  • The “privacy” policy in Windows ten explicitly authorizes Microsoft to await at user files at any fourth dimension and to sell well-nigh whatever information


    it collates.

Summing upwards these 45 pages, i can say that Microsoft basically grants itself very broad rights to collect everything you exercise, say and write with and on your devices in order to sell more targeted advert or to sell your data to third parties. The company appears to exist granting itself the right to share your data either with your consent “or as necessary”.

By default, when signing into Windows with a Microsoft account, Windows syncs some of your settings and data with Microsoft servers, for example “web browser history, favorites, and websites yous have open” as well as “saved app, website, mobile hotspot, and Wi-Fi network names and passwords”. Users can yet deactivate this transfer to the Microsoft servers past changing their settings.

“We will access, disclose and preserve personal data, including your content (such as the content of your emails, other private communications or files in private folders), when we accept a good organized religion conventionalities that doing so is necessary to”, for example, “protect their customers” or “enforce the terms governing the apply of the services”.

  • Windows x sends a host of core debugging information to Microsoft


    and third parties.
  • Windows x sends data to Microsoft about applications used and those that are running

    .
  • Windows 10 has a host of snooping options enabled by default

    . This includes snooping


    on files, text input, vocalisation input, location information, contacts, calendar records, web browsing history, screenshots of running programs and how long they were running, and auto-connection to open hotspots which show targeted advertisements. Many options cannot be disabled at all in a standard installation.

Eu withal concerned over Windows 10 privacy despite Microsoft’s changes


(2017)

Quote EFF With Windows 10, Microsoft Blatantly Disregards User Selection and Privacy: A Deep Dive

:

Windows 10 sends an unprecedented corporeality of usage data dorsum to Microsoft,

France orders Microsoft to end tracking Windows 10 users

, Quote government order


(Underline
added.):

The Chair of the National Data Protection Commission (CNIL) bug formal detect on Microsoft Corporation to
terminate collecting excessive information and tracking browsing by users without their consent. She is also demanding that Microsoft take satisfactory measures to ensure the security and confidentiality of user data.

Ars Technica: Dutch privacy regulator says Windows ten breaks the law


[19]

Regulator says Microsoft doesn’t offer enough information to enable informed consent.

Trust
  • Even when data drove features are disabled, Windows 10 still sends a range of identifiable information to Microsoft

    .
  • Microsoft has renamed “information slurping” features


    to give the impression they were removed.
Windows Error Reporting (WER) and Cadre Dumps Privacy Issues

  • Core dumps can be a security risk. Quote wikipedia

    :

Although Microsoft has made privacy assurances, they acknowledge that personally identifiable information]could be contained in the memory and application data compiled in the 100-200 KB “minidumps” that Windows Error Reporting compiles and sends back to Microsoft. They insist that in case personal information is sent to Microsoft, it won’t be used to identify users, according to Microsoft’s privacy policy.[xx]
[21]
But in reporting problems to Microsoft, users need to trust Microsoft’due south partners besides. Nigh 450 partners accept been granted admission to the mistake reporting database to see records related to their device drivers and apps.[22]

In December 2013, an independent lab found that WER automatically sends information to Microsoft when a new USB device is plugged to the PC.[23]

#crash reporter abused by NSA

Co-ordinate to Der Spiegel: Inside TAO: Documents Reveal Top NSA Hacking Unit

:

  • The Microsoft crash reporter has been exploited by NSA’southward Tailored Admission Operations unit to hack into the computers of Mexico’s Secretariat of Public Security.
  • Microsoft crash reports are automatically harvested in NSA’s XKeyscore database, in society to facilitate such operations.

Having Fun at Microsoft’southward Expense

One example of the sheer creativity with which the TAO spies approach their work tin can be seen in a hacking method they use that exploits the error-proneness of Microsoft’s Windows. Every user of the operating system is familiar with the annoying window that occasionally pops up on screen when an internal problem is detected, an automatic message that prompts the user to report the bug to the manufacturer and to restart the program. These crash reports offering TAO specialists a welcome opportunity to spy on computers.

When TAO selects a estimator somewhere in the world as a target and enters its unique identifiers (an IP address, for example) into the corresponding database, intelligence agents are then automatically notified any fourth dimension the operating system of that figurer crashes and its user receives the prompt to report the trouble to Microsoft. An internal presentation suggests information technology is NSA’southward powerful XKeyscore


spying tool that is used to fish these crash reports out of the massive bounding main of Internet traffic.

The automated crash reports are a “neat way” to gain “passive access” to a machine, the presentation continues. Passive access means that, initially, only data the computer sends out into the Internet is captured and saved, only the calculator itself is not withal manipulated. Still, even this passive access to error messages provides valuable insights into issues with a targeted person’s computer and, thus, information on security holes that might be exploitable for planting malware or spyware on the unwitting victim’due south estimator.

Although the method appears to accept little importance in applied terms, the NSA’southward agents all the same seem to enjoy it because it allows them to have a bit of a laugh at the expense of the Seattle-based software behemothic. In one internal graphic, they replaced the text of Microsoft’s original error message with one of their ain reading, “This information may be intercepted past a foreign sigint system to gather detailed data and better exploit your machine.” (“Sigint” stands for “signals intelligence.”)

Quote Microsoft


(Underline
added.):

Enhanced mistake reporting, including the retentivity state of the device when a organisation or app crash occurs (which may unintentionally comprise user content, such every bit parts of a file you were using when the problem occurred).

Trying to disable the lenghty of privacy invasive features


is a huge task similar to playing “whack-a-mole”. Being unaware of some spyware feature could result in unwanted surveillance.

Windows User Freedom Restrictions

[edit]

A number of conscious decisions past Microsoft severely limit user freedoms.

Tabular array:
Windows User Liberty Threats

Category Description
Trust

The German government, Ministry of Economics, Federal Office for Data Security (BSI) does not trust Microsoft Windows.

Archived, redacted version after court order requested by Microsoft against news paper ZEIT ONLINE: page 1, page 2 (DeepL translated
[24]):

For example, an internal paper from the Ministry building of Economic science from early 2012 states: “Due to the loss of total sovereignty over information engineering science,” the security goals of “confidentiality” and “integrity” are no longer guaranteed. Elsewhere, at that place are sentences such as, “Meaning impacts on the IT security of the federal assistants may result.” Appropriately, the determination is: “The utilize of ‘trusted computing’ applied science in this form … is unacceptable for the federal assistants and for operators of disquisitional infrastructures.”

What was it that ZEIT ONLINE needed to redact?

Quote A BSI-2i.pdf German authorities internal documents leaked on wikileaks


(DeepL translated
[25]):

With regard to the utilize of TPMs, it tin be pointed out in the negotiations, that not only the German regime is critical of the use of TPMs that it does not command itself, but also wide sections of German language manufacture, particularly in disquisitional infrastructures.

[26]

Therefore, Microsoft argues that they themselves need control over UEFI “Secure Boot”. in order to securely manage UEFI “Secure Boot” for the possessor. From the BSI’s bespeak of view the endeavor for a self-controlled configuration of UEFI “Secure Boot” is currently high, but it is urgently required in item in areas of application with a high demand for protection or in critical infrastructures.

Heise: High german regime are losing control over disquisitional IT systems (High german language, use DeepL and/or Google Translate)
[27]:

On the one hand, the federal government demands “unrestricted controllability” of computers that keep critical infrastructures running – i.e. nuclear ability plants, water, free energy and ship networks. On the other mitt, the responsible authorities are doing nothing to regain the control already lost to Intel and Microsoft.

The Annals – Germany warns: You lot just Tin can’T TRUST some Windows 8 PCs

A whitewashed statement by the German language government, Federal Office for Information Security, BSI,
[28]
wrote ( See full argument (spider web archived).) (DeepL translated):

From the point of view of the BSI, the utilise of Windows 8 in combination with a TPM two.0 is accompanied past a loss of control over the operating system and hardware used. This results in new risks for users, especially for the federal assistants and critical infrastructures. In detail, on hardware operated with a TPM two.0, with Windows 8, unintentional errors by the hardware or operating system manufacturer, but also by the possessor of the IT system, can lead to fault conditions that foreclose farther operation of the organisation. This tin can lead to the situation that in example of an error, non only the operating system merely too the hardware used is permanently unusable. Such a situation would be unacceptable neither for the Federal Administration nor for other users. Furthermore, the newly implemented mechanisms tin as well be used for acts of sabotage by third parties. These risks must be countered.

For certain user groups, the apply of Windows eight in combination with a TPM tin can certainly mean a security proceeds. These include users who, for various reasons, cannot or do not want to worry about the security of their systems, but trust the system manufacturer to provide and maintain a secure solution. This is a legitimate usage scenario, simply the manufacturer should provide sufficient transparency nigh the possible limitations of the provided architecture and possible consequences of its use.

Forced Updates Microsoft has a history of updating software without permission

. While configurable update reminders are good for those who forget to regularly update, forced updates are problematic for those that practise not wish to.
[29]

This Windows issue has non been foreseen. To the knowledge of the author there where no popular “really disable all Windows updates” instructions.

By comparing such an issue is unlikely to happen with Debian (and many derivatives) based operating systems (and other Liberty Software Linux distributions). On Windows in that location was no existent way to check which lawmaking will run when. Or at to the lowest degree, for practical purposes, nobody did reverse applied science and documented that.

For example on Debian (based) operating systems past default their default package manager APT is fully Open Source. Only also without reading the source code, it’southward behavior is much more than predictable.

Software sources are divers in easily human readable files such as
/etc/apt/sources.list
file and configuration snippets in
/etc/apt/sources.list.d
binder. These files can be viewed and edited with a simple text editor past the system ambassador. And then also the upgrade process is divided into two parts. Downloading updated bundle lists (“sudo apt update“) and the actual upgrade (“sudo apt total-upgrade“). The kickoff step simply downloads metadata. No actual software packages are downloaded.
[30]
If anything looks unwanted, the user tin can disable any software source and re-fetch software sources to “forget” unwanted ones. The 2d step shows the user a preview what would happen (newly installed packages, upgrades packages, packet removals) and asks the user for confirmation.
[31]
Automatic updates crave installation of a software package that implements automatic upgrade functionality such as the
unattended-upgrades
Debian bundle. If no such parcel is installed, no automatic updates volition happen. Surprises, packet managing director beliefs unwanted by the user are extremely less likely.

Forced Upgrades
  • Microsoft now enforces upgrades to Windows 10


    involuntarily.
    [32]
  • Proposed Windows 10 upgrades remove the selection to cancel or postpone the proposed upgrade


    one time accepted.
  • Microsoft undertook a range of actions to force Windows 7 and 8 users to upgrade to Windows ten

    .
    [33]
  • Microsoft ignored flags on Windows seven and 8


    specifying that upgrades to Windows 10 were non desired. A user reported that the estimator becoming non-functional after the forced upgrade and sued.
    [34]
  • For months, Microsoft tricked users into upgrading to Windows 10


    if they failed to observe and deny the upgrade.
  • Microsoft has encouraged complaints to system administrators


    about non upgrading to Windows ten.
Tiered Stability (Updates Testing) Windows forces lower-paying customers to install new updates and gives higher-paying customers the option of whether or not to prefer them. Quote

:

Windows x Enterprise does allow users to postpone any update indefinitely but it is only available in bulk licensing.

User Freedoms
  • Windows has introduced a range of digital restrictions mechanisms

    .
  • Microsoft does not allow opting out of verified kick


    on RT tablets which prevents the utilise of other operating systems.
  • Windows is determined about Microsoft business relationship cosmos.

  • Windows 10
    S
    forces you to use Border and Bing

    .
Software Liberty
  • Microsoft windows is nonfreedom software. See Avoid Non-Freedom Software and Miscellaneous Threats to User Freedom.
Forced Telemetry into C++ Binaries
  • Microsoft’s Automated Insertion of Telemetry into C++ Binaries until Microsoft’s got caught

Adversary Collaboration

[edit]

Microsoft has a history of informing adversaries of bugs before they are fixed. Microsoft reportedly gives adversaries security tips


(archive.is

) on how to crack into Windows computers.

Microsoft Corp. (MSFT), the world’south largest software company, provides intelligence agencies with information nearly bugs in its popular software earlier information technology publicly releases a fix, according to ii people familiar with the procedure.

Redmond, Washington-based Microsoft (MSFT) and other software or Internet security companies have been enlightened that this type of early on alarm allowed the U.Southward. to exploit vulnerabilities in software sold to strange governments, co-ordinate to two U.S. officials. Microsoft doesn’t ask and can’t exist told how the government uses such tip-offs, said the officials, who asked not to be identified because the matter is confidential.

Frank Shaw, a spokesman for Microsoft, said those releases occur in cooperation with multiple agencies and are designed to give government “an early showtime” on take a chance assessment and mitigation

Run into too this opinion analyzing this, How Can Whatever Company Ever Trust Microsoft Again?

.

By comparing, the Linux kernel has a security buy embargo procedure

.

[…]

Although our preference is to release fixes for publicly undisclosed bugs equally shortly equally they go available, this may be postponed at the request of the reporter or an affected party for up to vii agenda days from the outset of the release process, with an exceptional extension to 14 calendar days if it is agreed that the criticality of the bug requires more time. The only valid reason for deferring the publication of a gear up is to accommodate the logistics of QA and large scale rollouts which crave release coordination.

While embargoed information may be shared with trusted individuals in order to develop a set up, such data will not be published aslope the gear up or on whatsoever other disclosure channel without the permission of the reporter. This includes but is not limited to the original problems report and followup discussions (if any), exploits, CVE information or the identity of the reporter.

In other words our only interest is in getting bugs fixed. All other information submitted to the security list and any followup discussions of the report are treated confidentially even after the embargo has been lifted, in perpetuity.

[…]

Fixes for sensitive bugs, such every bit those that might lead to privilege escalations, may need to exist coordinated with the individual <linux-distros@vs.openwall.org> mailing list and then that distribution vendors are well prepared to issue a fixed kernel upon public disclosure of the upstream set up. Distros will need some time to examination the proposed patch and volition generally request at least a few days of embargo, and vendor update publication prefers to happen Tuesday through Thursday. When advisable, the security team tin can assistance with this coordination, or the reporter tin can include linux-distros from the first.

[…]

The crucial deviation betwixt Microsoft bug embargoes and Linux bug embargoes is that Microsoft notifies intelligence agencies which are then known to exploit vulnerabilities while the Linux kernel security squad has a much more transparent bug embargo process where trusted parties, huge Linux distributions receive an early notification for the purpose of wide availability of the software upgrade containing the fix before to prevent wide exploitation past attackers in the wild.

Shared Source

[edit]

  • Open Source, Freedom Software versus
  • proprietary, closed source, precompiled software.

are totally different development models. Both development models take advantages and disadvantages.

The case for Open Source, Freedom Software is fabricated on the Avoid Not-Freedom Software wiki page.

One advantage for airtight source software could be argued being secrecy, security through obscurity

. (Also addressed on the Avoid Not-Freedom Software wiki page.)

Nevertheless, Microsoft Windows has none of the advantages of Open Source, Liberty Software but also cannot fully take advantage of security through obscurity either. Office of the Shared Source Initiative


is the Government Security Program

. Quote ZDNet

:

Microsoft’s Shared Source Initiative


makes source code available to “qualified customers, enterprises, governments, and partners for debugging and reference purposes”. In that location’s almost no information on the company’south website about their Regime Security Programme


(GSP). Just two sentences. Just the commencement of those sentences notes that requests might come from “local, state, provincial, or national governments or agencies”. When the GSP was launched back in 2003, yet, Microsoft was happy to tell the media that Windows source code was made available to a number of governments and international organistions, including Russia, NATO, the UK, and China. Another report said that Australia, Austria, Finland, Kingdom of norway, Taiwan, and Turkey were also on the list.

Simplified summary: Independent security researchers don’t accept admission to the source lawmaking but huge groups of people from of which some yous probably practice not trust exercise have the reward over you lot. The simply motivation for sharing the source code is to get regulatory approving for deployment in foreign government networks that need certain assurances for accessing their markets. This has zilch to practise with empowering third parties or giving them the choice and freedom to modify the software or share it with others.

Inescapable Telemetry

[edit]

The fact that there is no manner to completely remove or disable telemetry requires further consideration. For instance, non-enterprise editions do not permit anyone to completely opt-out of the surveillance “features”


of Windows 10. Quote Even when told not to, Windows 10 just can’t stop talking to Microsoft

. Quote Windows 10 Sends Your Information 5500 Times Every Twenty-four hour period Even After Tweaking Privacy Settings

CheesusCrust also disabled every single tracking and telemetry features in the operating system. He and then left the auto running Windows ten overnight in an effort to monitor the connections the OS is attempting to make.

Eight hours afterwards, he found that the idle Windows 10 box had tried over 5,500 connections to 93 different IP addresses, out of which almost 4,000 were made to 51 different IP addresses belonging to Microsoft.

Even if some settings are tweaked to limit this behavior, information technology is impossible to trust those changes will be respected. Even the Enterprise edition was discovered to completely ignore privacy settings and anything that disables contact with Microsoft servers.[35]

Any corporation which forces code changes on a user’s machine, despite Windows updates being turned off many times before, is undeserving of trust.
[36]
[37]
[38]
[39]
[40]
Windows x updates accept been discovered to oftentimes reset or ignore telemetry privacy settings.
[41]
Microsoft backported this behavior to Windows 7 and viii


for those that held back, so odds are Windows users are already running information technology.

Forfeited Privacy Rights

[edit]

By now the reader should exist convinced that just past using any version of Windows, the right to privacy is completely forfeited. Windows is incompatible with the intent of Whonix ™ (and the anonymous Tor Browser), since running a compromised Windows host shatters the trusted calculating base of operations which is part of any threat model. Privacy is inconceivable if any information that is typed or downloaded is provided to third parties, or programs which are bundled equally role of the Os regularly “phone domicile” by default

.

Targeted Malicious Upgrades

[edit]

Microsoft Windows is not designed to be resistant to targeted malicious software upgrades of the Windows operating system or applications from Windows store.

Targeted malicious software upgrade means singling out specific users and shipping malicious upgrades to these select users only.

Near users are using a Windows Live ID since that is encouraged past Windows and their real names and IP addresses.

When installing/updating applications using the Microsoft Shop, Microsoft knows the Windows Live ID, therefore also the real name and IP address of the user. It follows that a coerced or compromised Microsoft Store could single out users and ship malicious software that includes malware with features such as remote control, remote view, file upload and download, microphone and web camera snooping, keyboard logging and so forth. This is the same situation for whatever OS shipped with corporate controlled walled garden app store like Apple tree, Google and Amazon.

With cognition of Microsoft existing privacy intrusive behavior as documented elsewhere on this page, it seems sane to presume that the same applies to Microsoft Update.

By comparison:

  • Nigh Linux distributions commonly do not require an east-mail based login to receive upgrades. Users can nonetheless be singled out by IP addresses unless users opt-in for using something such as apt-ship-tor which is not the default.
  • In case of Whonix And Kicksecure, all upgrades are downloaded over Tor. At that place is no manner for the server to ship legit upgrade packages to nigh users while singling out specific users for targeted attacks.

Stance by GNU Projection

[edit]

The GNU Projection opinion


is that Windows is “Malware”, due to the threats posed to personal freedoms, privacy and security, meaning the software is designed to part in ways that mistreat or harm the user.

Estimation of Opinion by GNU Project:

Discussion definitions: Spyware is a type of malware.

Quote wikipedia malware

:

A wide variety of malware types exist, including figurer viruses, worms, Trojan horses, ransomware, spyware, adware, rogue software, wiper and scareware.

If that definition is accepted… It therefore follows, if one agrees that “Windows is Spyware”, information technology so logically follows “Windows is also Malware”. This is to explain the GNU Project stance of calling Windows “Malware”.

Windows is malware by definition because of what it does. Individuals trusting Microsoft as an entity with all the data it collects by default doesn’t alter that determination.

Opinion by Free Software Foundation

[edit]

The Free Software Foundation (FSF) writes


quote:

Microsoft uses draconian law to put Windows, the earth’south most-used operating arrangement, completely exterior the command of its users. Neither Windows users nor independent experts can view the system’southward source code, brand modifications or fixes, or copy the system. This puts Microsoft in a dominant position over its customers, which it takes advantage of to treat them every bit a product

.

Windows Insecurity

[edit]

Microsoft’s willingness to consult with adversaries and provide zero days


before public fixes are announced logically places Windows users at greater take a chance, particularly since adversaries buy security exploits from software companies


to gain unauthorized access


into figurer systems.
[42]
Even the Microsoft company president has harshly criticized adversaries for stockpiling vulnerabilities


that when leaked, led to the contempo ransomware crunch world-wide. This is elaborated in chapter Adversary Collaboration.

Windows is non a security-focused operating organization

. If it was, information technology would for instance:

  • Not upload user data to Microsoft servers.
  • Minimize data stored on, available to servers of Microsoft. (Windows Surveillance)
  • Utilize end-to-cease encryption whenever possible.
  • Be resilient to targeted malicious upgrade attacks past non linking software installation/upgrading to a Windows ID and/or providing an option to download software over the Tor anonymity network (or hypothetically a next generation anonymity network developed past Microsoft).
  • Not upload full deejay encryption keys to Microsoft servers (meet chapter Windows Backdoors, category Encryption).

Such security standards are well affordable considering since Microsoft makes billions of profit likewise as very realistic since some Freedom Software Linux distributions already implemented these.

Due to Microsoft’southward restrictive, proprietary licensing policy for Windows, there are no
legal
software projects that are providing a security-enhanced Windows software fork

. There are security-enhanced Windows software fork(south) but these are illegal, violating the copyright of Microsoft and provided by anonymous developers. In contrast, the Linux customs has multiple Freedom Software Linux variants that are strongly focused on security, like Qubes OS

.

Microsoft provides Tyrant Security. Not Freedom Security. (Freedom vs Tyrant Security



) Windows comes with some innovative security technologies, however privacy and user freedom is terrible. Security and privacy have a strong connection. Quote Bruce Schneier Security vs. Privacy

, The Value of Privacy

:

At that place is no security without privacy.

Quote HulaHoop

:

I equate privacy with security because they are very much related in the real world specially for whistleblowers.

Windows Historic Insecurity

[edit]

Microsoft updates also employ weak cryptographic verification methods such as MD5 and SHA-1. In 2009, the CMU Software Engineering Plant stated that MD5 “…should exist considered cryptographically broken and unsuitable for further use”.
[43]
In 2012, the Flame malware exploited the weaknesses in MD5 to false a Microsoft digital signature.
[44]

Earlier Windows 8, there was no central software repository comparable to Linux where software could exist downloaded safely. This means a large segment of the population remains at take a chance, since many Windows users


are still running Windows seven.
[45]

Windows Software Sources

[edit]

On the Windows platform, a common way to install additional software is to search the Cyberspace and install the relevant programme. This is risky, since many websites bundle software downloads with adware, or worse malware. Even if software is e’er downloaded from reputable sources, they ordinarily act in very insecure means. For instance, if Mozilla Firefox is downloaded from a reputable website like
chip.de,
[46]
then until recently, the download would accept taken place over an insecure, plain http connection.
[47]
In that case, information technology is piffling for Internet access provider level adversaries, Wi-Fi providers and others to mount human being-in-the-centre attacks and to inject malware into the download. Just even if https is used for downloads, this would only provide a very basic form of authentication.

To keep a system secure and gratuitous of malware it is strongly recommended to always verify software signatures. However, this is very difficult, if not incommunicable for Windows users. Nigh oftentimes, Windows programs do not have software signature files (OpenPGP / gpg signatures) that are usually provided past software engineers in the GNU/Linux world.

Tools for software digital signature verification are not installed past default on the Windows platform. Neither SignTool nor gpg4win are installed past default on the Windows platform. These could be manually installed but there is a bootstrap issue. These tools itself would take to be downloaded over https, i.east. merely with a very basic class of authentication. In contrast, on the Linux platform ordinarily the GnuPG software digital signature verification tool is installed by default.

For these reasons it is safe to presume that virtually nobody using a Windows platform is regularly benefiting from the strong hallmark that is provided past software signature verification.

Windows ten App Shop does not suffer from this issue and does software signature verification but many applications are non available form Windows App Store. In the Windows ecosystem, the culture is software signature verification is less widespread.

In dissimilarity, virtually Linux distributions provide software repositories. For instance, Debian and distributions based on Debian are using apt. This provides stiff authentication because APT verifies all software downloads confronting the Debian repository signing key. Further, this is an automated, default process which does non require any user activeness. Apt-get too shows a warning should there exist attempts to install unsigned software. Fifty-fifty when software is unavailable in the distribution’s software repository, in about cases OpenPGP / gpg signatures are available. In the Linux earth, information technology is practically possible to always verify software signatures.

No Ecosystem Diverseness Reward

[edit]

The popularity of Windows platforms on desktops actually increases risk, as attackers target the near monocultural operating arrangement environment with regularity. A security problems is normally exploitable on many versions of Windows run anywhere, making them known in security terms every bit a “course intermission”.[48]
For example:

Intransparency

[edit]

Windows source code is unavailable for public review and build by independent third parties.

Microsoft Windows has none of the advantages of Open Source, Freedom Software only also cannot fully take advantage of security through obscurity either. This signal is fabricated in chapter shared source.

There is no public outcome tracker for Microsoft Windows where whatever reasonable user is immune to post or reply. There is a public list of vulnerabilities


just without public discussion among developers and/or users.
[49]
Microsoft’s internal outcome tracker is private, unavailable for the public even for reading.
[50]
The ability of the public of getting insights into the planning, idea procedure of Microsoft, participation in the development of Windows is much more limited. This is the example for many closed source, proprietary software projects. The customs cannot participate every bit much in development. In comparing for Open up Source projects, issue tracker are most oftentimes public for everyone to post and reply (with exception of security issues under embargo until fixed).

When users are having problems and searching for communication, ofttimes the advice is to “reinstall Windows”. Due to the closed source nature of windows, information technology’s far more difficult to analyze issues and provide problems fixes and workarounds.

Sometimes opposite engineering is cited equally an alternative to the unavailability of Window’s source code to the general public. Reverse engineering however is far more difficult. For instance, the forced updates and forced upgrades issues, Windows ignoring the user’s automatic update settings (documented in chapter Windows User Freedom Restrictions) had not been foreseen and published by anyone doing reverse engineering. Users were taken by surprise.

Using Earlier Windows Versions is no practiced Culling

[edit]

When users learn about shortcoming, anti-features, spyware features of Windows they often consider equally an alternative to non upgrade to a newer version of Windows or to downgrade to an before version of Windows.
[51]
This is not a solid plan for the future since security support for older versions of Windows is being dropped and without security support, newly found security vulnerabilities volition remain unfixed.

This is also made difficult due to forced updates/upgrades which are mentioned above.

Terrible Company

[edit]

Microsoft has been hostile against Freedom Software. Microsoft is a patent troll. Microsoft claimed that Linux infringed its intellectual property. Microsoft experienced backslash over that claim, never substantiated this claim, sued anyone or apologized. References:

Other:

The Tyranny of the Default

[edit]

Quote The Tyranny of the Default

:

“‘The tyranny of the default’ [is] the expression I like to apply for: we know well-nigh users don’t go in and change things. They only assume that someone smarter than them chose the settings that are best for them, and and then they say ‘Yep’ a lot when they’re asked questions.
What that means is that if information technology’south enabled by default, it’ll tend to stay on.

Any anti-features of Windows such as telemetry cannot be excused by “only it tin can be disabled”. That’due south a workaround at best. Not a set. Fact remains, for most users, if it’south enabled by default, it’ll tend to stay on.

Irresolute defaults requires sensation of the issue, skills of using search engines and finding documentation how to practice so, and technical skills to change the default. This is often non the example for non-technical users. Even technical users might forget it in some situations such after re-installation. Therefore default settings matter.

Nuisances

[edit]

  • “reinstall Windows”: When users are having issues and searching for communication, frequently the advice is to “reinstall Windows”. Due to the closed source nature of windows, information technology’s far more difficult to analyze issues and provide bug fixes and workarounds.
  • Windows update often take a long time and require multiple reboots.
    [52]
  1. User runs Windows update.
  2. Windows downloads updates and installs.
  3. Reboot is required, the user reboots, shutdown takes a long time since Windows is finalizing some updates.
  4. Boot takes a long time since Windows is finalizing some updates.
  5. Windows update reports further updates. Back to one.
  6. Repeat a few times.

By comparison, for example for Debian based distributions a single “sudo apt update && sudo apt full-upgrade” is sufficient to download and install all updates. No extra time is required for shutdown or the next kicking. No further updates are required right after reboot.
[53]

Advertisements:

Windows is less flexible. While with Linux distribution it’s easily possible to install them on USB or to swap a hard bulldoze installed in i computer and kicking it within a replacement estimator, these are major challenges for Windows users.

It’s difficult to change Windows. For example, Qubes Windows Tools for Windows ten are still non ready.

Freedom Software Superiority

[edit]

Based on the preceding section and analysis, it is strongly recommended to larn more about GNU/Linux and install a suitable distribution to safeguard personal rights to security and privacy. Otherwise, significant effort is required to play “whack-a-mole” disabling Windows anti-features, which routinely subjects users to surveillance, limits pick, purposefully undermines security, and harasses via advertisements, forced updates/forced upgrades, and so on.

See too Avoid Not-Freedom Software.

Conclusion

[edit]

Can Windows 10 be secure for huge enterprise level customers? In theory, maybe. These customers might have access to Windows Shared Source which might


even exist complete plenty to building Windows from source code. Who knows. It cannot be known for sure due to the high requirements


to become access to Windows source lawmaking and the requirement of signing a non-disclosure agreement (NDA). Even if the author of this page did know, it could not be published hither due to the NDA requirement. Such customers might even be able to escape the otherwise for mere mortals Inescapable Telemetry, to build their own Windows installer ISO and Windows updates from Windows source code.

In practice, information technology is foolish to trust whatever version coming from an entity that has proved beyond dubiety that is non trustworthy. Much better to motility on and instead use sustainable alternatives.

Tin can Windows 10 be secure for laymen users? Probably not. Due to Windows Error Reporting (WER) and Core Dumps Privacy Problems, telemetry, spyware and keylogger (meet affiliate Windows Surveillance) besides much private information including user information is ending up on Microsoft servers which is then in part harvested past whatsoever government with thousands of employees which Mircosoft is compelled to cooperate with. Such data can then be used in parallel construction


(evidence laundering), circumvention of constitutional protections against protection from unreasonable searches and seizures.

Security updates are necessary for any operating system but he issue with Microsoft is they tend to sneak in things other than what users tin can reasonably expect. In the by at to the lowest degree they made changes to the update system to all the same phone home even if information technology was disabled. Examples include Inescapable Telemetry and forced updates/upgrades.

Windows officially admits their information mining activity and gives users and then-called options to “choose” what they share. Third parties have uncovered time and time once again, these user choices are ignored and in that location is no way to disable data gathering completely.

Does Windows result in a globe wide net gain or net loss of privacy?

A proprietary security hardened Windows that resists 3rd party spyware + includes data snooping in its core = net loss of finish user liberty/privacy and security risk every bit NSA has been know to apply windows error reporting for aiding exploitation.

A less security hardened Freedom Software operating arrangement might more than vulnerable to agile attacks + no privacy invasive code include by default = net gain of privacy past default as nothing is being reported anywhere unless targeted attacks are deployed.

Forum Word

[edit]

https://forums.whonix.org/t/host-operating-organisation-selection-wiki-page-give-and-take/11303

macOS Hosts

[edit]

Info
This macOS Hosts chapter might need some improvements. ticket

In a fashion similar to Windows platforms, Apple tree operating systems likewise pose many security and privacy threats.

Table:
macOS Threats
[54]

Category Clarification
Backdoors
  • Files on devices can be deleted if they were downloaded from sources competing with Apple tree companies.
  • Intentional backdoors allow remote root privileges, wipes and deletion of applications.
Design Flaws
  • An insecure blueprint allows execution of malicious code by applications and the extraction of messaging history.
Device Bricking
  • Devices are bricked if fixed by an “unauthorized” repair store.
  • Devices are bricked that were unlocked without permission.
Personal Information
  • Biometric markers like fingerprints are used for device say-so.
  • Extensive personal information is sent to Apple tree servers, such as:

    • Automatic uploads of photos and videos used by certain applications; and
    • Unsaved documents and program files (without permission).
  • Search terms and location data are sent to Apple.
  • Organization files are scanned.
  • OSX phones dwelling house with info about the Date, Time, Figurer, ISP, City, State and Awarding Hash when any plan is executed, past default.[55]
    [56]
User Command and Freedoms
  • Commanded programs similar media, political, bitcoin and wellness-focused applications, and games are censored.
  • Arbitrary limits are imposed on the use of software.
  • Digital restrictions mechanisms are imposed.
  • System upgrades are forced without consent.
  • Older versions of operating systems cannot be installed.
  • It is impossible to manually ready system security bugs that Apple tree accept non addressed.
  • User interfaces are designed to make specific options hard to find and enable/disable.

Come across this write-up


by the FSF for farther detailed information.
[57]

In public talks, ex-Tor developer Jacob Appelbaum who had access to the Snowden files, hinted that Apple devices in particular were easy to infiltrate by the Intelligence Community.

Recommendation

[edit]

Based on the preceding sections and analysis, it is strongly recommended to learn more about Linux and install a suitable distribution that safeguards rights to secure and private calculating. Otherwise, significant effort is required to play “whack-a-mole” with Windows and malware, which routinely subjects users to surveillance, limits choice, purposefully undermines security, and harasses via advertisements, forced updates, remote removal of applications without consent, and and then on.

Run across Also

[edit]

  • Basic Host Security
  • Advanced Host Security
  • Miscellaneous Threats to User Freedom
  • Avoid Non-Freedom Software
  • Tyrant Security vs Freedom Security
  • Why Whonix ™ is Freedom Software
  • Unsubstantiated Conclusions
  • Whonix ™ Policy on Non-Freedom Software

References

[edit]



  1. To be more than verbal, Qubes OS is not primarily based on Linux. Qubes is based on Xen and Linux.


  2. https://fixubuntu.com/




  3. https://world wide web.theinquirer.net/inquirer/news/2168086/canonical-linux-kernel




  4. https://ask.fedoraproject.org/en/question/25127/how-to-build-unity-in-fedora/




  5. https://www.phoronix.com/browse.php?folio=news_item&px=Ubuntu-Zstd-Deb-Packages




  6. https://mjg59.dreamwidth.org/25376.html




  7. https://www.linux-mag.com/Online/Blogs/Off-the-Beat-Bruce-Byfield-south-Blog/Mir-vs.-Wayland-prove-why-upstream-projects-matter




  8. https://kver.wordpress.com/2015/05/27/making-sense-of-the-kubuntucanonical-leadership-spat/




  9. https://www.pcworld.com/article/2998647/operating-systems/kubuntus-founder-resigns-accuses-canonical-of-defrauding-donors-and-violating-copyright.html




  10. https://lists.ubuntu.com/athenaeum/kubuntu-devel/2012-Feb/005782.html




  11. https://www.fsf.org/news/canonical-updated-licensing-terms




  12. https://mjg59.dreamwidth.org/37113.html




  13. https://forums.linuxmint.com/viewtopic.php?t=152450




  14. Dev/Operating_System#Switch_from_Ubuntu_to_Debian


  15. https://mjg59.dreamwidth.org/45939.html




  16. https://world wide web.zdnet.com/article/microsoft-and-canonical-partner-to-bring-ubuntu-to-windows-10/




  17. With the ability to be legally allowed to actually talk virtually. I.e. without non-disclosure agreement (NDA).


  18. modified by author: added link to web annal with quote from 2015


  19. https://www.regime.nl/binaries/government/documents/publications/2019/06/11/dpia-windows-10-enterprise-5.1809-and-preview-v.-1903/DPIA+Windows+10+version+i.5+11+June+2019.pdf




  20. Microsoft Privacy Statement for Error Reporting




  21. Description of the stop user privacy policy in application error reporting when you are using Function




  22. https://rcpmag.com/manufactures/2002/10/03/microsoft-error-reporting-drives-bug-fixing-efforts.aspx




  23. https://www.forcepoint.com/web log/security-labs/are-your-windows-fault-reports-leaking-data



  24. So heißt es in einem internen Papier aus dem Wirtschaftsministerium von Anfang 2012: “Durch den Verlust der vollen Oberhoheit über Informationstechnik” seien “die Sicherheitsziele ‘Vertraulichkeit’ und ‘Integrität’ nicht mehr gewährleistet.” An anderer Stelle stehen Sätze wie: “Erhebliche Auswirkungen auf dice IT-Sicherheit der Bundesverwaltung können damit einhergehen.” Die Schlussfolgerung lautet dementsprechend: “Der Einsatz der ‘Trusted-Calculating’-Technik in dieser Ausprägung … ist für dice Bundesverwaltung und für die Betreiber von kritischen Infrastrukturen nicht zu akzeptieren.”


  25. Bei der Verhandlungsführung kann bezogen auf die TPM-Nutzung daraufhingewiesen werden,

    dass nicht nur die Bundesregierung den nicht selbst kontrollierten Einsatz von TPMs kritisch

    sieht, sondern auch weite Teile der deutschen Industrie, insbesondere in Kritischen Infrastrukturen.


  26. Daher argumentiert Microsoft damit, dass sie selbst die Kontrolle über UEFI „Secure Kicking”

    benötigen, um für den Eigentümer UEFI „Secure Boot” sicher zu verwalten. Aus Sicht des BSI ist der Aufwand für eine selbst kontrollierte Konfiguration von UEFI „Secure Kick” zwar derzeit hoch, aber insbesondere in Einsatzbereichen mit hohem Schutzbedarf oder in Kritischen

    Infrastrukturen dringend geboten.


  27. Einerseits verlangt dice Bundesregierung „uneingeschränkte Kontrollierbarkeit“ von Computern, die kritische Infrastrukturen am Laufen halten – also Atomkraftwerke, Wasser-, Energie und Verkehrsnetze. Andererseits tun die zuständigen Behörden nichts, um die bereits an Intel und Microsoft verlorene Kontrolle zurückzuerlangen.



  28. Bundesamt für Sicherheit in der Informationstechnik


  29. https://www.techrepublic.com/index.php/blog/information technology-news-digest/microsoft-admits-to-stealth-updates/



  30. sudo apt update
                  
    ... Get:5 tor+https://deb.debian.org/debian buster-backports InRelease [46.seven kB]      Become:six tor+https://deb.debian.org/debian-security buster/updates InRelease [65.four kB] Get:7 tor+https://deb.debian.org/debian buster-updates InRelease [51.ix kB]        Hit:8 tor+https://deb.debian.org/debian buster InRelease ...
                  


  31. sudo apt total-upgrade
                  
    Reading packet lists... Washed Edifice dependency tree        Reading state data... Done Calculating upgrade... Done The following packages volition be upgraded:   betimes-apt-sources-list anon-icon-pack apparmor-profile-dist   apparmor-profile-torbrowser bootclockrandomization damngpl dist-base-files   gpg-bash-lib hardened-malloc hardened-malloc-kicksecure-enable helper-scripts   kicksecure-base of operations-files kicksecure-cli kicksecure-dependencies-cli msgcollector   msgcollector-gui open-link-confirmation repository-dist sdwdate secbrowser   security-misc tb-default-browser tb-starter tb-updater timesanitycheck tor   tor-geoipdb usability-misc vm-config-dist whonix-initializer 30 upgraded, 0 newly installed, 0 to remove and 0 not upgraded. Need to get 5,957 kB of archives. Subsequently this performance, 732 kB of additional disk infinite volition be used. Do you want to keep? [Y/north]
                  



  32. https://www.theguardian.com/technology/2015/sep/11/microsoft-downloading-windows-one




  33. https://www.computerworld.com/article/3012278/microsoft-sets-phase-for-massive-windows-10-upgrade-strategy.html





  34. https://web.archive.org/web/20170609221304/https://forums.whonix.org/uploads/default/original/2X/0/004857ec71ff2e4b23c88bf596b6142373fe2879.jpg




  35. https://spider web.archive.org/web/20071011010707/http://informationweek.com/news/showArticle.jhtml?articleID=201806263




  36. https://archive.fo/LffTy




  37. https://arstechnica.com/information-technology/2015/07/windows-10-updateshoped-for-automatic-and-mandatory-for-home-users/




  38. http://voices.washingtonpost.com/securityfix/2007/09/microsofts_stealth_update_come.html




  39. https://world wide web.zdnet.com/blog/hardware/confirmation-of-stealth-windows-update/779




  40. https://customs.spiceworks.com/topic/1535835-win-10-update-resets-privacy-once again



  41. This is especially truthful for users of Tor, who are regularly targeted in this mode.

  42. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/MD5#cite_note-11



  43. https://arstechnica.com/security/2012/06/flame-crypto-breakthrough/



  44. world wide web.webcitation.org/6mgUAxhv9


  45. https://world wide web.chip.de/downloads/Firefox-64-Bit_85086969.html


    https://world wide web.webcitation.org/6mgUDIObc




  46. In 2019,
    fleck.de
    now enforces https for its entire website.

  47. https://www.schneier.com/blog/archives/2017/01/class_breaks.html




  48. https://answers.microsoft.com


    is more often than not(?) user-to-user discussion. Mostly: hard to find any employees posting there or very low interaction. A volunteer moderator isn’t a developer.


    There is as well https://techcommunity.microsoft.com

    .


  49. Link as prove pointing to the fact that Microsoft does take an internal consequence tracker: https://www.engadget.com/2017-10-17-microsoft-bug-database-hacked-in-2013.html




  50. Case quote

    :

    I uncertainty microsoft is telling everything, im sticking with W7 indefinitely.

    Example quotes

    :

    Hmm, guess I’thousand going back to windows 7.

    This is why I went from using the beta build every bit my chief Os back to Windows 8.1.

    And now myself and anybody in my family will be staying with their electric current Os (Windows XP, Vista, 7 and viii.1).




  51. Because a previous update was a prerequisite for getting the side by side update.

  52. https://www.gnu.org/proprietary/malware-apple.en.html



  53. https://sneak.berlin/20201112/your-calculator-isnt-yours/



  54. https://appleterm.com/2020/10/twenty/macos-big-sur-firewalls-and-vpns/



  55. https://fix-macosx.com/


Do computers that run nuclear reactors usually run on GNU/Linux to make sure they’re not getting hacked

Source: https://www.whonix.org/wiki/Host_Operating_System_Selection

Popular:   instance, most of us now use the internet frequently, and usually on our mobile devices not even on only computers