Russian hackers have probably penetrated critical Ukraine computer networks, U.S. says

Various types of cyberwarfare used by Russia against many nations

Cyberwarfare by Russian federation
includes denial of service attacks, hacker attacks, dissemination of disinformation and propaganda, participation of country-sponsored teams in political blogs, internet surveillance using SORM technology, persecution of cyber-dissidents and other active measures.[1]
According to investigative journalist Andrei Soldatov, some of these activities were coordinated by the Russian signals intelligence, which was part of the FSB and formerly a part of the 16th KGB department.[2]
An analysis past the Defense force Intelligence Bureau in 2017 outlines Russian federation’s view of “Data Countermeasures” or IPb (informatsionnoye protivoborstvo) every bit “strategically decisive and critically important to control its domestic populace and influence adversary states”, dividing ‘Information Countermeasures’ into two categories of “Informational-Technical” and “Informational-Psychological” groups. The one-time encompasses network operations relating to defence, attack, and exploitation and the latter to “attempts to change people’due south behavior or beliefs in favor of Russian governmental objectives.”[3]

Online presence

[edit]

US journalist Pete Earley described his interviews with former senior Russian intelligence officer Sergei Tretyakov, who defected to the United States in 2000:

Sergei would send an officer to a co-operative of the New York Public Library where he could get access to the Cyberspace without anyone knowing his identity. The officer would post the propaganda on various websites and send information technology in emails to United states publications and broadcasters. Some propaganda would be disguised as educational or scientific reports. … The studies had been generated at the Heart by Russian experts. The reports would be 100% authentic
[iv]

Tretyakov did non specify the targeted web sites, but made clear they selected the sites which are well-nigh convenient for distributing the specific information. According to him, during his piece of work in New York Metropolis in the end of the 1990s, one of the virtually frequent subjects was the State of war in Chechnya.[four]

According to a publication in Russian estimator weekly
Computerra, “simply because it became known that anonymous editors are editing articles in English Wikipedia in the interests of United kingdom of great britain and northern ireland and US intelligence and security services, it is also likely that Russian security services are involved in editing Russian Wikipedia, but this is not even interesting to evidence it — considering anybody knows that security bodies have a special identify in the structure of our [Russian] state”[5]

Cyberattacks

[edit]

It has been claimed that Russian security services organized a number of deprival of service attacks as a function of their cyber-warfare against other countries, such as the 2007 cyberattacks on Estonia and the 2008 cyberattacks on Russia, South Ossetia, Georgia, and Azerbaijan.[six]
[vii]
1 identified young Russian hacker said that he was paid past Russian state security services to lead hacking attacks on NATO computers. He was studying computer sciences at the Department of the Defense force of Information. His tuition was paid for by the FSB.[8]

Estonia

[edit]

In Apr 2007, following a diplomatic row with Russia over a Soviet war memorial, Estonia was targeted past a series of cyberattacks on financial, media, and government websites which were taken down by an enormous volume of spam being transmitted past botnets in what is called a distributed denial-of-service attack. Online banking was made inaccessible, government employees were suddenly unable to communicate via e-mail, and media outlets could not distribute news. The attacks reportedly came from Russian IP addresses, online instructions were in Russian, and Estonian officials traced the systems controlling the cyberattacks back to Russia.[9]
[x]
All the same, some experts held doubts that the attacks were carried out past the Russian government itself.[11]
A twelvemonth after the attack NATO founded the Cooperative Cyber Defense Centre of Excellence in Tallinn every bit a direct issue of the attacks.[12]

France

[edit]

In 2015, the Paris-based French dissemination service TV5Monde was attacked past hackers who used malicious software to attack and destroy the network’s systems and take all twelve of its channels off the air. The assail was initially claimed past a grouping calling themselves the “Cyber Caliphate” nonetheless a more in-depth investigation by French regime revealed the attack on the network had links to APT28, a GRU-affiliated hacker group.[13]
[14]
In May 2017, on the eve of the French presidential election, more than 20,000 e-mails belonging to the entrada of Emmanuel Macron were dumped on an anonymous file-sharing website, shortly after the campaign announced they had been hacked. Word of the leak spread chop-chop through the Internet, facilitated by bots and spam accounts. An analysis by Flashpoint, an American cybersecurity firm, determined with “moderate conviction” that APT28 was the group behind the hacking and subsequent leak.[15]

In February 2021 the Agence nationale de la sécurité des systèmes d’information said that “several French entities” were breached by Sandworm in a three year long campaign from tardily 2017 to 2020 in which Sandworm compromised the French software firm Centreon in social club to install two pieces of malware into its clients’ networks. Similar to the 2020 Us federal government data breach. The ANSSI said the breach “mostly affected information technology providers, especially web hosting providers.” Russia has denied being behind the cyberattack. Centreon said in a statement that information technology “has taken note of the data,” and that information technology is has proven vulribliuty involved a commercial version of Centeron software.[16]
[17]
[xviii]

Georgia

[edit]

On 20 July 2008, the website of the Georgian president, Mikheil Saakashvili, was rendered inoperable for xx-iv hours by a series of denial of service attacks. Presently afterwards, the website of the National Banking concern of Georgia and the parliament were attacked by hackers who plastered images of Mikheil Saakashvili and one-time Nazi leader Adolf Hitler. During the state of war, many Georgian authorities servers were attacked and brought down, reportedly hindering communication and the dissemination of crucial information. According to technical experts, this is the first recorded example in history of cyberattacks coinciding with an armed disharmonize.[19]
[xx]

An contained Usa-based research institute US Cyber Consequences Unit of measurement report stated the attacks had “picayune or no direct interest from the Russian authorities or military”. Co-ordinate to the institute’s conclusions, some several attacks originated from the PCs of multiple users located in Russia, Ukraine and Republic of latvia. These users were willingly participating in cyberwarfare, existence supporters of Russian federation during the 2008 South Ossetia war, while some other attacks too used botnets.[21]
[22]

Germany

[edit]

In 2015, a high-ranking security official stated that information technology was “highly plausible” that a cybertheft of files from the German Parliamentary Committee investigating the NSA spying scandal, later published by WikiLeaks, was conducted by Russian hackers.[23]
[24]
In late 2016, Bruno Kahl, president of the Bundesnachrichtendienst warned of data breaches and misinformation-campaigns steered past Russia.[25]
According to Kahl, there are insights that cyberattacks occur with no other purpose than to create political doubt.[26]
[27]
Süddeutsche Zeitung
reported in February 2017 that a twelvemonth-long probe past German intelligence “found no physical proof of [Russian] disinformation campaigns targeting the government”.[28]
By 2020 even so German investigators had collected plenty evidence to identify i suspect.[29]

Hans-Georg Maaßen, head of the country’s Federal Function for the Protection of the Constitution, noted “growing bear witness of attempts to influence the [next] federal ballot” in September 2017 and “increasingly aggressive cyber espionage” against political entities in Germany.[30]
The New York Times
reported on 21 September 2017, 3 days before the High german federal ballot, that at that place was piffling to suggest whatsoever Russian interference in the election.[31]
In 2021 the European Commission has accused Russian federation of trying to interfere in European democratic processes but days before the parliamentary ballot on September 26 in Federal republic of germany.[32]

Kyrgyzstan

[edit]

Beginning in mid-January 2009, Kyrgyzstan’due south 2 master ISPs came under a large-scale DDoS assault, shutting downwards websites and e-post inside the country, effectively taking the nation offline. The attacks came at a time when the land’s president, Kurmanbek Bakiyev, was being pressured past both domestic actors and Russia to shut a U.S. air base in Kyrgyzstan.[33]
The Wall Street Journal
reported the attacks had been carried out by a Russian “cyber-militia”.[34]

Poland

[edit]

A three-year pro-Russian disinformation campaign on Facebook with an audition of iv.5 1000000 Poles was discovered in early 2019 past OKO.press and Avaaz. The campaign published faux news and supported three Polish pro-Russian politicians and their websites: Adam Andruszkiewicz, former leader of the ultra-nationalist and neo-fascist All-Polish Youth and, as of 2019[update], Secretary of State in the Polish Ministry of Digitisation; Janusz Korwin-Mikke; and Leszek Miller, an active fellow member of the Smoothen United Workers’ Party during the communist epoch and a prime minister of Poland during the post-communist epoch. Facebook responded to the analysis past removing some of the web pages.[35]

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Romania

[edit]

Between late April and early May 2022, in the midst of the 2022 Russian invasion of Ukraine, multiple Romanian government, military, banking company and mass media websites were taken down later a serial of DDoS attacks, behind which was a pro-Kremlin hacking group, Killnet. The hacking group described the cyberattacks to be a response to a statement made by so-Senate president, Florin Cîțu that Romania would provide Ukraine with war machine equipment.[36]
[37]
[38]

Republic of korea

[edit]

According to two United States intelligence officials that talked to
The Washington Post, and also the findings of cybersecurity annotator Michael Matonis, Russia is likely behind the cyber attacks against the 2018 Winter Olympics in Republic of korea.[39]
The worm responsible for these cyber attacks is known every bit “Olympic Destroyer”.

The worm targeted all Olympic It infrastructure, and succeeded in taking down WiFi, feeds to jumbotrons, ticketing systems, and other Olympic systems. It was timed to go off at the start of the opening ceremonies. Information technology was unique in that the hackers attempted to use many false signatures to blame other countries such equally North Korea and Prc.[39]

Ukraine

[edit]

In March 2014, a Russian cyber weapon chosen Snake or “Ouroboros” was reported to accept created havoc on Ukrainian government systems.[40]
The Snake tool kit began spreading into Ukrainian figurer systems in 2010. Information technology performed Computer Network Exploitation (CNE), also equally highly sophisticated Computer Network Attacks (CNA).[41]

From 2014 to 2016, co-ordinate to CrowdStrike, the Russian APT Fancy Bear used Android malware to target the Ukrainian Army’s Rocket Forces and Artillery. They distributed an infected version of an Android app whose original purpose was to command targeting data for the D-thirty Howitzer arms. The app, used by Ukrainian officers, was loaded with the X-Amanuensis spyware and posted online on armed forces forums. CrowdStrike claims the attack was successful, with more than fourscore% of Ukrainian D-30 Howitzers destroyed, the highest percent loss of any artillery pieces in the army (a per centum that had never been previously reported and would mean the loss of nigh the entire arsenal of the biggest artillery slice of the Ukrainian Armed forces.[42]).[43]
According to the Ukrainian army, this number is wrong and that losses in artillery weapons “were way beneath those reported” and that these losses “have nothing to practice with the stated cause”.[44]

The U.S. government concluded afterwards a report that a cyber attack caused a power outage in Ukraine which left more than than 200,000 people temporarily without power. The Russian hacking grouping Sandworm or the Russian government were possibly behind the malware attack on the Ukrainian power grid as well as a mining visitor and a large railway operator in December 2015.[45]
[46]
[47]
[48]
[49]
[50]
A similar assault occurred in December 2016.[51]

In February 2021 Ukraine accused Russian federation of attacking the System of Electronic Interaction of Executive Bodies a spider web portal used by the Ukrainian government to circulate documents by uploaded documents that contained macroscripts which if downloaded and enabled would lead to the computer to secretly download malware that would permit hackers to take over a figurer.[52]
[53]

In January 2022, a cyberattack on Ukraine took down the website of the Ministry of Strange Affairs and other government agencies.[54]
Although an investigation has not been conclusive the cyber attacks coincide with the Russo-Ukrainian crisis.

In Feb 2022, before and afterwards Russian troops entered eastern Ukraine amid an environment of escalating tensions between Ukraine and Russia, several major Ukrainian governmental and business websites were taken down by a series of cyberattacks. U.S. officials attributed the attacks to Russian attackers, although the Russian authorities denied involvement.[55]

2014 Ukrainian presidential election

[edit]

Pro-Russian hackers launched a series of cyberattacks over several days to disrupt the May 2014 Ukrainian presidential ballot, releasing hacked emails, attempting to modify vote tallies, and delaying the terminal result with distributed denial-of-service (DDOS) attacks.[56]
[57]
Malware that would take displayed a graphic declaring far-right candidate Dmytro Yarosh the electoral winner was removed from Ukraine’south Central Election Commission less than an hour before polls closed. Despite this, Channel One Russia “reported that Mr. Yarosh had won and circulate the simulated graphic, citing the election commission’s website, fifty-fifty though it had never appeared at that place.”[56]
[58]
According to Peter Ordeshook: “These faked results were geared for a specific audience in order to feed the Russian narrative that has claimed from the start that ultra-nationalists and Nazis were behind the revolution in Ukraine.”[56]


United kingdom of great britain and northern ireland “Brexit” referendum

[edit]

In the sew together to the referendum on the United kingdom exiting the European Matrimony (“Brexit”), Prime number Minister David Cameron suggested that Russian federation “might be happy” with a positive Brexit vote, while the Remain entrada accused the Kremlin of secretly backing a positive Brexit vote.[59]
In December 2016, Ben Bradshaw MP claimed in Parliament that Russia had interfered in the Brexit referendum campaign.[60]
In February 2017, Bradshaw called on the British intelligence service, Government Communications Headquarters, currently under Boris Johnson as Foreign Secretarial assistant, to reveal the data it had on Russian interference.[61]
In April 2017, the House of Commons Public Administration and Constitutional Diplomacy Select Committee issued a report stating, in regard to the June 2016 plummet of the authorities’s voter registration website less than ii hours prior to the originally scheduled registration borderline (which was and then extended), that “the crash had indications of being a DDOS ‘set on.'” The report likewise stated that there was “no straight show” supporting “these allegations about foreign interference.” A Cabinet Office spokeswoman responded to the study: “Nosotros accept been very clear about the cause of the website outage in June 2016. It was due to a spike in users just before the registration deadline. There is no bear witness to suggest malign intervention.”[62]
[63]

In June 2017, it was reported past
The Guardian
that “Leave” campaigner Nigel Farage was a “person of involvement” in the The states Federal Bureau of Investigation into Russian interference in the The states 2016 Presidential ballot.[64]
In October 2017, Members of Parliament in the Civilization, Media and Sport Committee demanded that Facebook, Twitter, Google and other social media corporations, to disclose all adverts and details of payments past Russian federation in the Brexit campaign.[65]

United states of america

[edit]

Putin’s Asymmetric Assault on Democracy in Russia and Europe: Implications for U.South. National Security

In April 2015, CNN reported that “Russian hackers” had “penetrated sensitive parts of the White House” computers in “contempo months.” It was said that the FBI, the Secret Service, and other U.Southward. intelligence agencies categorized the attacks as “amidst the most sophisticated attacks ever launched against U.S. authorities systems.”[66]

In 2015, CNN reported that Russian hackers, likely working for the Russian government, are suspected in the State Department hack. Federal law enforcement, intelligence and congressional officials briefed on the investigation say the hack of the Country Section electronic mail system is the “worst ever” cyberattack intrusion against a federal bureau.[67]

In February 2016, senior Kremlin advisor and top Russian cyber official Andrey Krutskikh told the Russian national security conference in Moscow that Russia was working on new strategies for the “information loonshit” that was equivalent to testing a nuclear flop and would “allow u.s.a. to talk to the Americans as equals”.[68]

In 2016, the release of hacked emails belonging to the Democratic National Committee, John Podesta, and Colin Powell, amongst others, through DCLeaks and WikiLeaks was said by individual sector analysts[69]
and US intelligence services[70]
to have been of Russian origin.[71]
[72]
Also, in Dec 2016, Republicans and Democrats on the Senate Committee on Military called for “a special select commission to investigate Russian attempts to influence the presidential election”.[73]
[74]

In 2018, the U.s.a. Computer Emergency Response Team released an alert warning that the Russian government was executing “a multi-stage intrusion campaign by Russian government cyber actors who targeted small commercial facilities’ networks where they staged malware, conducted spear phishing, and gained remote access into energy sector networks.” It further noted that “[a]fter obtaining access, the Russian government cyber actors conducted network reconnaissance, moved laterally, and collected information pertaining to Industrial Control Systems.”[75]
The hacks targeted at least a dozen U.S. power plants, in addition to h2o processing, aviation, and government facilities.[76]

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In June 2019, the
New York Times
reported that hackers from the Usa Cyber Control planted malware potentially capable of disrupting the Russian electric grid.[77]
According to
Wired
senior writer Andy Greenberg, “The Kremlin warned that the intrusions could escalate into a cyberwar between the two countries.”[77]

Over several months in 2020, a group known equally APT29 or Cozy Deport, working for Russia’s Foreign Intelligence Service, breached a acme cybersecurity firm and multiple U.S. government agencies including the Treasury, Commerce, and Free energy departments and the National Nuclear Security Administration.[78]
The hacks occurred through a network direction system called SolarWinds Orion. The U.S. regime had an emergency coming together on 12 December 2020, and the press reported the hack the adjacent day. When Russia’due south Foreign Intelligence Service performs such hacks, information technology is typically “for traditional espionage purposes, stealing information that might help the Kremlin understand the plans and motives of politicians and policymakers,” according to
The Washington Post,
and non for the purpose of leaking information to the public.[79]

In February 2021 a report by Dragos stated that Sandworm has been targeting US electric utilities, oil and gas, and other industrial firms since at least 2017 and were successful in breaching these firms a “handful” of times.[80]
[81]

Venezuela

[edit]

Afterward the news website Runrun.es published a report on extrajudicial killings by the Bolivarian National Police, on 25 May 2019, the Venezuelan affiliate of the
Instituto de Prensa y Sociedad
(IPYS), pointed out that the website was out of service due to an uncached asking attack, denouncing that it originated from Russia.[82]

False alarms

[edit]

On 30 Dec 2016, Burlington Electric Department, a Vermont utility company, appear that lawmaking associated with the Russian hacking operation dubbed Grizzly Steppe had been found in their computers. Officials from the Department of Homeland Security, FBI and the Part of the Director of National Intelligence warned executives of the financial, utility and transportation industries about the malware code.[83]
The first report by
The Washington Post
left the impression that the grid had been penetrated, but the hacked computer was not fastened to the grid. A afterward version fastened this disclaimer to the top of its report correcting that impression: “Editor’southward Note: An earlier version of this story incorrectly said that Russian hackers had penetrated the U.S. electrical grid. Regime say there is no indication of that so far. The estimator at Burlington Electrical that was hacked was non attached to the grid.”[84]

See also

[edit]

  • Cyberwarfare by China
  • Cyberwarfare in the United States
  • DarkSide (hacking group)
  • Listing of cyber warfare forces
  • Armed services history of the Russian Federation
  • Mueller Study
  • Timeline of Russian interference in the 2016 United States elections
  • Timeline of Russian interference in the 2016 U.s.a. elections (July 2016 – ballot mean solar day)
  • Web brigades and Cyberspace Research Bureau (aka trolls from Olgino)
  • Vaccine hesitancy

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Further reading

[edit]

  • Andrew S. Bowen, “Russian Cyber Units,”
    Congressional Research Service, 4 January 2021, https://crsreports.congress.gov/production/pdf/IF/IF11718
  • Spencer Ackerman and Sam Thielman, “United states Officially Accuses Russia of Hacking DNC and Interfering with Election,” The Guardian, eight Oct 2016, accessed 13 August 2017, https://www.theguardian.com/engineering/2016/oct/07/us-russia-dnc-hack-interfering-presidential-election
  • Halpern, Sue, “The Drums of Cyberwar” (review of Andy Greenberg,
    Sandworm: A New Era of Cyberwar and the Chase for the Kremlin’south Virtually Dangerous Hackers, Doubleday, 2019, 348 pp.),
    The New York Review of Books, vol. LXVI, no. xx (xix December 2019), pp. 14, 16, 20.
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Russian hackers have probably penetrated critical Ukraine computer networks, U.S. says

Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cyberwarfare_by_Russia